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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modafinil


Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a wakefulness-promoting drug used for treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, idiopathic hypersomnia, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.[6] It has also seen widespread off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer.[7] In the United States modafinil is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance and restricted in availability and usage, due to concerns about possible addiction potential. In most other countries it is a prescription drug but not otherwise legally restricted.

Modafinil
Modafinil enantiomers.svg

(R)-(βˆ’)-modafinil (armodafinil; top)
(S)-(+)-modafinil (bottom)

Clinical data
Trade names Provigil, Alertec, Modavigil, others
Synonyms CRL-40476; Diphenylmethylsulfinylacetamide
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a602016
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Dependence
liability
Psychological: Very low[1]
Physical: Negligible[1]
Addiction
liability
Very low to low[2]
Routes of
administration
Oral (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Not determined due to the aqueous insolubility
Protein binding 62%
Metabolism Hepatic (primarily via amide hydrolysis;[3] CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 involved [4]
Biological half-life 15 hours (R-enantiomer),
4 hours (S-enantiomer)[5]
Excretion Urine (80%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.168.719
Chemical and physical data
Formula C15H15NO2S
Molar mass 273.35 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
(verify)

Modafinil acts as an atypical, selective, and weak dopamine reuptake inhibitor which indirectly activates the release of orexin neuropeptides and histamine from the lateral hypothalamus and tuberomammillary nucleus, respectively, by unknown mechanisms, all of which contribute to heightened arousal.[8][9][10]

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