The experiments were exported to Canada when the CIA recruited Scottish psychiatristDonald Ewen Cameron, creator of the “psychic driving” concept, which the CIA found particularly interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted fromAlbany, New YorktoMontrealevery week and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKULTRA experiments there. In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well aselectroconvulsive therapyat thirty to forty times the normal power. His “driving” experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playingtape loopsof noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions.His treatments resulted in victims’incontinence,amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents.
When lawsuits commenced in 1986, the Canadian government denied having any knowledge that Cameron was being sponsored by the CIA.